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Unfortunately, no sovietologist ever did the apprenticeship there.
As we have seen, for years and years, Rossi listened to fellow prisoners who confided in him. They were very diverse. All these Soviets spoke to him, in their individual jargon, the Gulag slang, a specific language born of a specific culture. Rossi was multilingual and passionate about languages. He had a remarkable memory, which he used during his time as an undercover communist.
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That same memory would retain hundreds and thousands of Gulag expressions that were not part of the Russian language proper. It was a composite language, consisting of the accumulation and sedimentation of several linguistic strata, the slang of the ordinary prisoners, the legal language of the penitentiary administration, the specific vocabulary of the political prisoners, and words from pre-revolutionary Russian penal colonies.
He used it to describe and indeed explain the concentration camp universe from which it sprang. There are words and there are testimonies. The first step was, therefore, to assemble the facts. But, when Rossi undertook this Dantean task, he was no quiet researcher in the Library of Congress. He was a zek who had been held in the Gulag, for years on end, who had not been allowed to take any notes, and who was subjected to regular searches, even in the most intimate places. Nevertheless, he managed to write and keep records. He also made sketches of what he saw, which were confiscated How did he manage this?
He refused to reveal it to me, to avoid betraying a secret that could be of use against other detainees. The second step was to take place in communist Poland, after Rossi had left the Gulag, and had started, thanks to his still fresh memories and his secret records full of recollections, to set up a gigantic file. But here, too, he was not living in a country with freedom of expression. And so, to transfer his work to the west, he had to use the diplomatic bag of the French embassy, where he had some contacts.
The third step is of particular interest to you and to me.
Culture en Charente
Upon leaving Poland, Rossi set off for the United States at the invitation of a former Polish student and, in Washington, met Father Bradley, Dean of the College, who invited him to take advantage of the freedom of expression and make use of the library at Georgetown. So it is here that he completed his work on primary sources, which he gathered through patient, detailed, encyclopedic research, and wrote a book on all aspects of the soviet concentration camp system.
The result is, first of all, a fascinating linguistic investigation of an unknown idiom, the language of the Gulag: several thousand entries in the original Russian edition, published in London in In this manner, the subjective witness gave way to the intersubjective historian and drew closer to the challenging goal of objectivity. Usually, witnesses do not much like historians who have not, themselves, suffered the situations they describe and analyze.
Historians, for their part, mistrust witnesses, suspicious of their good faith, accuracy and veracity. Rossi managed to reconcile the two. He spent twenty-four years of his life listening, recording, and conceiving his project. Then he applied himself to editing the records, drawing up the files, checking and confirming his work by searching through archives, documents, studies, and works by other people.
If Memory and History are to complement and benefit each other, the past must not be cultivated for itself but must, above all, be used to serve. This is how Jacques Rossi saw it.
His individual testimony as a zek crushed by an oppressive system was to be placed at the service of a universal cause. In this mass slaughterhouse, what became of the individual? What happened to the human being?
What about forgiveness and the spirit of vengeance? How can a human being protect his soul in this gigantic crushing machine of degradation and destruction? How can he or she survive twenty-four years of captivity? This is where individual testimony is of greatest value. And it is a mark of the greatness of the existential choice of Jacques Rossi, the former zek , that in the final analysis he concluded that he had no personal resentment against these men, even the criminals who abused him in the Norilsk camp, even the policemen who tortured him in Butyrka prison, even the false companions who betrayed him and who helped to have him sentenced for a second time.
The more the desire for revenge, which only impedes the search for truth, is reduced to a pitiful settling of personal scores, the more noble is the task of struggling to avoid repeating the nightmare. Rossi wanted this awful experience endured by millions of men and women to serve as a lesson. Will it prevent new blindness? The question remains open. Survival is at the heart of the problems surrounding the concentration camp system. Why am I not dead? That is the ultimate question Translated from French.
When I asked this question over and over again, Jacques replied wearily as if he were always being asked to explain the unexplainable. And I had read. I had studied. In short I was lucky. I wasn't forced to commit dirty tricks. I met a few human beings. In the end, it was a matter of resilience Each of these good reasons is worthy of close inspection and affects us all, as they touch upon the limits of human capacity to endure. I would add another good reason, another trait that characterized Rossi: namely his spirit of resistance.
It was immense. For example, he underwent three hunger strikes while he was in the Gulag. How can you go on hunger strike in a world where you are constantly deprived of food? Indeed, as with many other questions, Jacques could never really provide a final answer. And that is why, however significant his work of memory and history, however important his testimony and his attempts to prevent such horrors being repeated, it calls for further research so that the why and how of totalitarian systems, and their attendant crimes against humanity can be better understood and explained.
There is always a certain amount of subjectivity in research, however academic and objective it may be. The reason why the impact of my first meeting with Jacques Rossi was so strong is that I, myself, am the granddaughter of people deported to the Nazi camps. Jacques Rossi may have come back from the Gulag, but my grandfather never returned from Auschwitz.
Indeed Rossi had some blind spots. For him nothing was worse than the Gulag and he believed that the Holocaust had been given too much media coverage in comparison with the silence that surrounded and still surrounds the memory of the Gulag.